The year 1906 was symbolic in the evolution of port reforms in Nigeria. That year, the Nigerian
marine was created. Apart from the heavy reliance on the seaports which was obvious after the
country became independent in 1960, there was the need for the indigenization of the port industry.
The marine as it was popularly known, emerged as the first port reform to initiate port administration
in the country. The Marine existed for about 48 years before it metamorphosed into Nigerian Ports
Authority (NPA) in 1954. The enactment of the NPA in 1954 was the first major attempt at forging an
integrated national approach to ports administration and terminal development. This was the
situation until 1988 when new political economic thinking of privatization and commercialization
focus of the military administration restructured the Authority to Nigerian Ports Plc in 1992.
This was later reversed to Nigerian Ports Authority in 1998. It represents a reform strictly limited to
change of name. Essentially, the port reforms and evolution in Nigeria can be classified into four
major phases as shown below (1906 to 1954 phase, 1954 to 1992 phase, 1992 to 2004 phase and
2004 Till date, phase of the concessionaires/PPP).
The development of any country to a very large extent hinges on the performance of its international
trade, as this is the principal generator of overall economic growth. Domestic and foreign trade is impossible without efficient transportation to convey the goods.Maritime transport is appropriate for transportation of large volume of cargo. With 80% of the volume of international trade transported by sea and with an annual growth rate of 5% over the last few years, maritime transport industry plays a crucial role in international supply chains. The increase in business complexity resulting from companies diverting into foreign markets and globalising their supply chains and material sources has led into many ship owners specialising in value-added activities.
The emergence of new shipping companies has necessitated the establishment of more seaports to
accommodate the growth A need to develop a reliable and guiding legislation will ensure a
successful relationship between the seaports, private companies and the ship owners. Presently,
Nigerian Ports Authority is acting as both the regulator and the landlord pending the enactment of
the Ports and Habour Authority and National Transport Commission Bills before the National
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